This week Birmingham welcomes back the Frankfurt Christmas Market, and this year marks 50 years of partnership between our two cities!
In celebration of this significant anniversary a number of events have been planned jointly with the City of Frankfurt and Frankfurt based organisations, and a calendar of events marking this special year can be found here.
The Christmas market, the biggest of its kind outside Germany and Austria, came to Birmingham for the first time in 1997 when it consisted of 11 stalls in Victoria Square. It returned in 2001, since which time it has become an annual fixture in the Birmingham calendar. The stallholders all come from Frankfurt and surrounding areas and their offer here in Birmingham mirrors that in Frankfurt – in fact some of the stalls look almost identical! If you want to find out more about the history of the Frankfurt Market you can find out more here.
The history of markets in Birmingham, however, goes back a little further… and what follows is a hop, skip, and a jump through time, courtesy of the chapter ‘Markets and Fairs’ [in Stephens, W. B. (ed.), VCH Warwickshire, Vol. VII, the City of Birmingham (London, 1964)], and showcasing some of the photographs we have here in Birmingham Archives & Collections.
In 1166 Peter de Bermingham, then lord of the manor of Birmingham, was granted a Royal Charter to hold a weekly market every Thursday. In 1251 the township was allowed to hold a fair lasting four days beginning every Holy (Maundy) Thursday. The market quickly flourished, and artisans and tradesmen began to gradually settle in the area. Economic activity was probably stimulated by the fact the settlement still bore the status of a manor, as opposed to that of a medieval borough, which allowed trades to be practiced free from the restrictions of the medieval craft guild system that existed in most boroughs.
“The lack of any large market place meant that as trade grew the markets spread into many of the streets in the centre of the town. By 1553 the Cornmarket, the Welsh Market and the English Market were all apparently separate places. Westley’s map of 1731 shows the corn market in the Bull Ring, with the shambles above it and the beast market in the High Street… The cheese market was moved to the Welsh Cross in 1768. A Monday cattle market, which was later discontinued, was opened in Deritend in 1776. The main cattle market continued to be on a Thursday, which remained one of the chief market days throughout the 19th century, although various goods were increasingly sold on other days. In 1791 a hay and straw market was established on Tuesday in Ann Street. The fish market in Dale End was apparently started at about the same time.” (VCH p. 251).
Entrance gates and railings at the fish market, Birmingham. 1912
“In the early 19th century the street commissioner cleared the Bull Ring and moved the general market there from the High Street in 1806. In 1817 they opened the Smithfield market on the site of the manor house moat. This absorbed the former markets for hay and straw as well as for cattle, horses, sheep, and pigs.” (VCH p. 251).
Exterior view of Smithfield Market, n.d. [c1887] [WK/B11/367]